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《中国司法鉴定》2018年第3期

来源:《中国司法鉴定》 作者:匿名 日期:2018-05-30 15:10:18 浏览:4222

 

 

民事司法鉴定意见的评价机制论纲

 

汤维建,徐枭雄

(中国人民大学法学院,北京 1000872

 

摘 要: 民事司法鉴定意见在现代型民事诉讼中发挥着越来越不可替代的作用,然而由于立法的缺失以及司法实践中法官自身知识的局限性,民事司法活动中鉴定意见的评价效果一直备受诟病。解决这一困境的重要方法就是尽快确立统一化和科学化的鉴定意见评价规范体系,通过完善鉴定人、当事人和法官对民事司法鉴定意见进行评价的配套制度及评价规则,使民事司法鉴定意见发挥其应有的科学证据的作用。

关键词: 民事诉讼;鉴定意见;证据能力;证明力

中图分类号: DF72DF8  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.001

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0001-09

 

Evaluation Mechanism of Civil Judicial Appraisal Opinions

TANG Wei-jian, XU Xiao-xiong

(Law School, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China)

Abstract: The opinions of civil judicial appraisal play an increasingly irreplaceable role in modern civil lawsuits. However, due to the lack of legislation and the limitation of judges' own knowledge in judicial practice, the evaluation effect of appraisal opinions in civil judicial activities has been criticized. An important method to solve this problem is to establish a unified and scientific evaluation system for evaluation of appraisal opinions as soon as possible, and to improve the supporting system and evaluation rules for civil judicial appraisal opinions by appraisers, litigants and judges so that civil judicial appraisal opinions can play the role that scientific evidence should have.

Keywords: civil lawsuit; appraisal opinion; evidence ability; probative force

 

 

 

 

 

庭审中心主义架构下专家辅助人制度实证研究

—— 以医疗损害责任案件为切入点

 

杨小利

(国家法官学院,北京 101100

 

摘 要: 证在法庭、辩在法庭、判在法庭是庭审中心主义的核心要义。对专家辅助人制度而言,其在诉讼中发挥作用的场域也仅限于庭审中在专业性事实问题上对当事人提供帮助。2015年《民诉法解释》对该制度做出了进一步完善,制度完善的效果需要实践来检验。以医疗损害责任案件为切入点,通过对相关案例的研究发现,司法实践中专家辅助人制度运行中的问题主要集中在制度启动、专家资格审查和专家辅助人意见采信三个方面。而上述问题的解决,需通过对专家辅助人权、责、义等具体规定的完善来实现;也需通过对法官释明权,裁判文书说理及加强制度的宣传等外部制度予以保障。

关键词: 专家辅助人;鉴定意见;证据采信

中图分类号: DF8  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.002

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0010-10

 

An Empirical Study of the Expert Assistant System in Court-centered Model

from the Perspective of Medical Damage Liability Cases

YANG Xiao-li

(National Judges College, Beijing 101100, China)

Abstract: Providing evidence to court, arguing in court and judging by court are the essence of making courts as the center of litigation. For the expert assistant system, its field is the court where it helps the parties regarding professional factual issues. The Interpretation of the Civil Procedure Law of 2015 further improved the system, whereas its effectiveness depends on the efficient practice at various levels of courts. Taking medical malpractice cases as the starting point, through the study of relevant cases, it is found that the main problems are concentrated on those three aspects: initiation of the system, review of expert qualification and the acceptance of expert assistants' opinions. To solve the above problems, it is necessary to stipulate the expert assistants' rights, duties and responsibilities, which should in turn be assured by making clear the right of interpretation by judges, improving the reasoning of the rulings and promoting the publicity of the system.

Keywords: expert assistant; appraisal opinions; acceptance of evidence

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

论美国专家证言的采信规则

 

金雷霆1,李 2

1.华东政法大学,上海 200042 2.上海徐汇区人民法院,上海 200031

 

摘 要: 专家证言是对发生在既往的其他证据资料进行现实加工之后的成果,与其他证据相比具有一定的独特性。美国专家证言制度经过200年的发展,形成了一套完整的、系统性的规则。通过对美国专家证言采信规则的形成与发展中的“弗莱伊”规则、“道伯特”规则等判例法规则和联邦证据规则立法的分析,对我国鉴定意见的采信规则的完善提出建议。尤其在鉴定意见的实质性性审查方面,不仅应当建立详细的审查标准,而且应当在诉讼程序中建立与之相配套的制度,比如鉴定人强制出庭制度和庭前鉴定意见证据交换规则等。

关键词: 专家证言;鉴定意见;审查标准;采信规则

中图分类号: DF8  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.02.003

文章编号: 1671-2072-201802-0020-08

 

The Admissibility of Testimony by Expert Witness in the United States

JIN Lei-ting1, LI Hong2

1. East China University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai 200042, China; 2. Peoples Court of Xuhui Shanghai, Shanghai 200031, China

Abstract Testimony by expert witnesses is a product of processing of evidence or data occurring in the past, therefore it has unique features compared with other kinds of evidence. After 200 years of development, the rules for expert testimony have come into a complete and systematic form. This article puts forward some suggestions to the rules for acceptance of judicial appraisal opinions in judicial practice by analyzing the standard of admitting expert evidence in cases in the United States, such as the Frye Rule, the Daubert Rule, and the federal rules of expert witnesses. In particular, much attention should be paid to the examination of the judicial appraisal opinions. To be specific, we should not only make detailed rules for examination, but also establish standards and relevant procedures, such as evidence exchange and compulsory court appearance by appraisers.

Keywords: expert testimony; appraisal opinions; standard of examination; admissibility of evidence

 

 

 

 

 

毒品所致精神障碍者刑事责任能力评定存在问题及对策

 

张钦廷,李豪喆,陈 琛,刘

(司法鉴定科学研究院 上海市法医学重点实验室 上海市司法鉴定专业技术服务平台,上海 200063

 

摘 要: 当前中国吸毒问题形势严峻,与此同时,吸毒人员肇事肇祸多发,吸食毒品可能导致精神障碍。毒品所致精神障碍者的刑事责任能力及其鉴定问题成为我国法医精神病学研究中的重大、疑难问题。目前,毒品所致精神障碍者的刑事责任能力评定存在认识混乱,引发法庭精神病学界的重大关注,同时,毒品所致精神障碍准确诊断的问题,非常值得关注却又容易被忽视。本文在对文献进行回顾的基础上,结合鉴定实践,从毒品进入体内的认定、毒品与精神异常关系的认定、刑事责任能力评定的国内外比较等方面分析当前法医精神病学中毒品所致精神障碍诊断和刑事责任能力评定中存在的问题,并提出相应对策。

关键词: 法医精神病;毒品所致精神障碍;刑事责任能力

中图分类号: DF795.3  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.004

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0028-11

 

Problems and Countermeasures of Criminal Responsibility Assessment

 of Offenders with Drug-induced Mental Disorders

ZHANG Qin-ting, LI Hao-zhe, CHEN Chen, LIU Chao

(Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Shanghai Forensic Service Platform, Academy of Forensic Science, Shanghai 200063, China)

Abstract: Currently, the situation of drug abuse is austere in China. At the same time, many dangerous behaviors are done by the drug users. Mental disorder may be induced by drugs. The criminal responsibility of the offenders with drug-induced mental disorders and its assessment become the main but difficult item in forensic psychiatry. Experts often have disagreement in evaluating the criminal responsibility of offenders with drug-induced mental disorders, partly because of the complexity of the establishment of diagnosis in the evaluation. Based on literature review and forensic practice, from the identification of drugs in body, the assertion of the relationship between the mental disorder and the drug use, and the comparison of the opinions on the criminal responsibility, the authors analyzed the problems about the diagnosis and criminal responsibility assessment of the offenders with drug-induced mental disorders and the countermeasures here put forward.

Keywords: forensic psychiatry; drug-induced mental disorder; criminal responsibility

 

 

 

 

 

 

我国嗜尸性蝇类分子鉴定的研究现状与分析

 

赵琳琳,翟仙敦,郑 哲,李永林,莫耀南

(河南科技大学 法医学院,河南 洛阳 471003

 

摘 要: 法医昆虫学中研究与应用最多的是嗜尸性蝇类,其种群随死亡时间的变化呈现出不同的生长发育和群落演替规律,对死亡时间推断具有重要意义。嗜尸性蝇类种属的准确鉴定是推断死亡时间的关键,但由于蝇类生长发育规律不同、形态特征相似等原因,仅用传统的形态学方法鉴定其种属往往比较困难。分子生物学的快速发展为嗜尸性蝇类种属鉴定提供了新的途径,本文根据国内相关记录和研究,对进行过分子鉴定的蝇种、地区及采用的分子标记进行综述,以期完善我国嗜尸性蝇类种属鉴定的研究,促进法医昆虫学的发展和应用。

关键词: 法医昆虫学;嗜尸性蝇类;分子鉴定;死亡时间

中图分类号: DF795.4  文献标志码:A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.005

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0039-06

 

Recent Advance in Molecular Identification of Necrophagous Flies in China

ZHAO Lin-lin, ZHAI Xian-dun, ZHENG Zhe, LI Yong-lin, MO Yao-nan

School of Forensic Medicine, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, China

Abstract: Necrophagous flies are one of the most widely used and studied species in forensic entomology. On corpse, they show various growth, development and community succession rules, which is critical to estimate the postmortem interval. The accurate identification of the species is very important. However, because of different succession patterns and similar morphological characteristics of necrophagous flies, it is often difficult to identify the species by traditional morphological methods. The molecular biology development provides a new method for the identification of necrophagous flies species. Based on the relevant domestic records and researches, this paper reviewed the species, regions and molecular markers used in molecular identification, in order to improve the species identification of necrophagous flies in China and promote the development and application of forensic entomology.

Keywords: forensic entomology; necrophagous fly; molecular identification; postmortem interval

 

 

 

 

 

 

新型毒品THJ-018的体外代谢物及代谢途径

 

静,花镇东,王优美

(公安部禁毒情报技术中心,北京 100193

 

摘 要: 目的 采用UPLC-HRMS 分析体外肝微粒体模型中新型毒品THJ-018的代谢物。方法 通过建立体外人肝微粒体孵育模型模拟人体代谢过程,并利用高分辨质谱分析代谢物以确定代谢发生位点及代谢途径。结果 THJ-018在人肝微粒体模型中共产生12种代谢物,其主要代谢途径为脱氢、加氢还原、脱氢和加氧及加氧反应。结论 该方法简便快捷,推荐THJ-018的加氢还原、脱氢和加氧、加氧反应代谢物为潜在尿液标志物。

关键词: THJ-018;合成大麻素;高分辨质谱;肝微粒体

中图分类号: DF795.4  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.006

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0045-05

 

Analysis of the in vitro Metabolites and Metabolism of THJ-018

LI Jing, HUA Zhen-dong, WANG You-mei

National Narcotic Laboratory, Drug Intelligence and Forensic Center of Minister of Public Security,

Beijing 100193, China

Abstract: Objective To detect and analyze the in vitro metabolites of THJ-018 by ultra performance liquid chromatography UPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry HRMS. Method To simulate the metabolism in human body by establishing the in vitro human liver microsomes model, and then explore the reaction points and pathways of metabolism by analyzing the metabolites using UPLC-HRMS. Results THJ-018 generated 12 metabolites in total in the human liver microsomes model. Dehydrogenation and hydroxylation reactions were its main metabolic pathways. Conclusion The method is fast and efficient. The dehydrogenation, hydrogenation reduction reaction, combined with dehydrogenation and hydroxylation metabolites of THJ-018 could be used as suitable, potentia biomarkers for urine samples.

Keywords: THJ-018; synthetic cannabinoids; high resolution mass spectrometry; liver microsomes

 

 

 

 

 

 

SD大鼠死后心血中大肠杆菌DNA含量

与早期死亡时间相关性的研究

 

安志远1,赵攀峰1,李 1,周怀谷2,郭育林3

1.上海公安学院,上海 200137 2.上海市公安局物证鉴定中心 法医物证学现场应用技术公安部重点实验室 上海市现场物证重点实验室,上海 200083 3.无锡中德美联生物技术有限公司,江苏 无锡 214174

 

摘 要: 目的 探讨SD大鼠死后心血总DNA含量变化规律;研究大鼠死后心血中大肠杆菌β-D-半乳糖苷酶基因(LacZ基因)含量变化与PMI的相关性。方法 用分光光度计检测SD大鼠死后96 h内心血总DNA浓度变化;选择大肠杆菌LacZ基因上一段较为保守的序列,构建引物及探针,制备重组质粒标准品,利用qPCR技术检测大鼠死后96 h内心血中大肠杆菌LacZ基因浓度变化情况。结果 随着PMI的延长,SD大鼠死后96 h内心血DNA浓度呈线性增长趋势,其回归方程为:y = 1.0233x + 31.647R2=0.9345;大鼠死后048 h LacZ基因扩增不明显,死后6096 h LacZ基因浓度呈指数式增长,其回归方程为:y = 3E-06e0.1567xR2=0.9569。结论 SD大鼠死后96 h内的心血总DNA含量变化及大肠杆菌LacZ基因含量变化均可用于推断PMI

关键词: 法医病理学;死亡时间;β-D-半乳糖苷酶;LacZ基因;大肠杆菌;心血

中图分类号: DF795.4  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.007

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0050-06

 

The Study on the Correlation between the Changes of E.coli LacZ Gene Concentration

 in the Heart Blood of SD Rats after Death and Early PMI

 AN Zhi-yuan1, ZHAO Pan-feng1, LI Dan1, ZHOU Huai-gu2, GUO Yu-lin3

1.Shanghai Police college, Shanghai 200137, China;2. Key Laboratory of Forensic Evidence and Scene Technology, Ministry of Public Security, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Crime Scene Evidence, Institute of Forensic Science, Shanghai Municipal Public Security Bureau, Shanghai 200083 , China; 3.AGCU ScienTech Incorporation., Wuxi 214174, China

Abstract Objective To investigate the changes of total DNA content in SD rat's heart blood after death and study the correlation between the changes of β-D-galactosidase gene (LacZ gene) content in SD rat's heart blood and PMI. Method The changes of total DNA concentration in SD rat's heart blood were determined by spectrophotometer during the PMI of 0-96h. A relatively conserved sequence of LacZ gene in E-coli was selected to construct primers and probes and prepared recombinant plasmid standards. The changes of LacZ gene concentration in E-coli in rat's heart blood were then analyzed through qPCR during the PMI of 0-96h. Results The total DNA concentration in SD rat's heart blood had a linear increasing trend with the prolongation of PMI. The regression equation was y = 1.0233x + 31.647 (R2=0.9345). The amplification of LacZ gene was not obvious during the first 48 hours, but its concentration showed exponential growth during the PMI of 60-96h. The regression equation was y=3E-06e0.1567x (R2=0.9569). Conclusion The changes of total DNA content and E-coli's LacZ gene content in SD rat's heart blood after death were useful in inferring PMI.

Keywords: forensic pathology; PMI; β-D-galactosidase; LacZ gene; E-coli; heart blood

 

 

 

 

 

 

利用三维立体显微镜判断笔画交叉时序探究

 

宋朝阳,白晓峰

(中国刑事警察学院,辽宁 沈阳 110035

 

摘 要: 目的 旨在建立一种无损、准确、直观的判断笔画交叉时序的检验方法。方法 研究采用实验的方法,利用三维立体显微镜观察同支笔及不同种类笔之间笔画交叉点所呈现出的、纵深不同的表征,并利用显微照相的方法进行记录、固定。结果 实验可见,通过笔尖擦压、色料排斥、油墨光泽、油墨堆积、色料覆盖、模糊带、清晰带等特征表现,可以有效而准确地判断交叉笔画书写的先后顺序。结论 三维立体显微镜检验为笔迹检验中笔画交叉时序的判断提供了一种有效的无损检验方法。判断书写字迹交叉笔画的时序,可为笔迹检验中确定单字的笔顺特征和确定文件是否发生添加改写等事实提供重要依据。

关键词: 三维立体显微镜;交叉笔画;笔迹检验

中图分类号: DF794.2  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.008

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0056-05

 

Sequencing of Cross Strokes by Three-dimensional Stereomicroscope

SONG Zhao-yang, BAI Xiao-feng

National Police University of China, Shenyang 110035, China

Abstract: Objective To establish a non-destructive, accurate and intuitive method for judging the sequence of cross strokes. Method In the experiment, the cross sections of strokes of different depths and written by different types of pens were observed through the three-dimensional stereomicroscope. The characteristic pictures were recorded. Result The sequence of cross strokes can be effectively and accurately determined with the characteristics of pressure, pigment repulsion, ink gloss, ink accumulation, pigment covering, blurring band and clear band. Conclusion Three-dimensional microscopic examination provides an effective non-destructive method for judging the sequence of cross written strokes, which is important in the forensic examination of handwriting and added documents.

Keywords: three-dimensional stereomicroscope; cross strokes; handwriting examination

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

八种弹头遗留金属颗粒的成分分析

 

刘全忠1,赵春梅2,佘晓欣2,刘 2

1.山西医科大学 法医学院, 山西 太原 030001 2.北京市公安司法鉴定中心,北京100192

 

摘 要: 目的 检测比对不同型号弹头遗留金属颗粒,以期寻找不同种类枪弹弹头的识别方法。方法 应用SEM/EDSGSR自动分析功能,对弹头摩擦滤纸后遗留的金属颗粒进行检测,并用SPSS软件对检测结果进行统计分析。结果 同一型号的8颗弹头之间遗留的金属颗粒数量及成分较为稳定,不同型号的弹头遗留的金属颗粒的元素以及重量百分比不完全相同,8种型号弹头遗留金属颗粒分布基本不同。结论 通过分析枪弹弹头遗留金属颗粒分布特征可以对不同弹种进行识别,并为推断枪弹来源提供一定的科学依据。

关键词: 法医病理学;弹头;金属颗粒

中图分类号: DF794.3  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.009

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0061-07

 

Composition of Metal Residuals From Eight models of Bullets

LIU Quan-zhong1, ZHAO Chun-mei2, SHE Xiao-xin2, LIU Li2

1.School of Forensic Medicine, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030001, China; 2.Judicial Authentication Center of Beijing Public Security, Beijing 100192, China

Abstract: Objective Analyzing the compositions of metal residuals from different models of bullets to identify different types of bullets. Methods The GSR automatic analysis function of SEM/EDS was used to detect the metal particles collected from wiping bullets with filter paper. The results were analyzed by SPSS software. Results The number and composition of the metal residuals from the same type of eight bullets were relatively stable. The elements and weight percentage of the metal residuals from different types of bullets were not distinguished completely and the distribution of metal residuals from 8 models of bullets was basically different. Conclusion The types of bullets can be identified by analyzing the distribution of metal residuals. It provides a scientific basis for investigating the source of bullets.

Keywords: forensic pathology; bullet; metal particles

 

 

 

 

 

 

黑色鞋带纤维种类的分析鉴别

 

1,吕荫妮2,熊甜丽2,史晓凡2

1.阜阳市公安局,安徽 阜阳 236000 2.中国刑事警察学院, 辽宁 沈阳 110035

 

摘 要:目的 建立傅立叶变换红外光谱法对鞋带纤维种类的定性分析和高效液相色谱法对纤维上染料种类的分析方法。方法 样品经金刚石池制样进行傅立叶变换红外光谱分析,对于同类纤维经NN-二甲基甲酰胺(DMF)提取染料进行高效液相色谱法纤维染料种类的分析。结果 24个鞋带样品的红外光谱特征可分为三大类,进而发现不同种类纤维的分子结构不同,所含官能团不同,对其进行染色时所用染料的类别不同。结论 对各种案件中的纤维检材与比对样品进行比对分析时,必须进行纤维种类和纤维上染料两个方面的检验。

关键词: 纺织纤维;染料;红外光谱法;高效液相色谱法

中图分类号: DF794.1  文献标志码: A  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.010

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0068-04

 

Discrimination of Black Shoelace Fibers

ZHOU Juan1, LV Yin-nin2, XIONG Tian-li2, SHI Xiao-fan2

1. Fuyang City Public Security Bureau, Fuyang 236000, China; 2. National Police University of China,

Shenyang 110035, China

Abstract: Objective To improve the discrimination ability for black shoelace fibers through analyzing the type of fibers and dyes of black shoelace fibers by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR and high performance liquid chromatography HPLC. Method Black shoelace samples were first prepared using a diamond cell, then analyzed by FT-IR. Moreover, for the same type of fibers, the dyes were extracted by N, N- dimethylformamide and analyzed by HPLC. Results According to the IR spectra, the shoelace fibers can be divided into three categories. Different types of fibers used different types of dyes, which could combine with corresponding functional groups in the molecular structures of fibers. Conclusion In the forensic practice of fiber identification, both fiber type and dyes ought to be taken into consideration.

Keywords: textile fiber; dye; infrared spectroscopy; high performance liquid chromatography

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

法律共同体下司法鉴定的关联性因素

—— 附三例报告

 

施晓玲

(苏州同济司法鉴定所,江苏 苏州215007

 

摘 要: 司法鉴定具备独立性。在司法鉴定意见出具之前或之后,尤其在法律共同体中,存在若干因素对其产生一定的影响。司法鉴定的独立性与司法鉴定的影响性因素之间并不矛盾。绝大多数关联性因素对提升司法鉴定质量起着重要的积极作用,但也存在少部分因素对司法鉴定的发展产生消极影响。本文报道三个鉴定案例,分别阐述公安机关、检察机关以及审判机关对司法鉴定意见的影响程度和影响特点,而且法律共同体中对司法鉴定意见的影响性因素将持续存在。经对上述案例回顾分析,以期得到司法鉴定机构及行业主管部门的重视并查明原因,从而进一步提升司法鉴定质量,推进司法鉴定体系的规范化建设。

关键词: 法律共同体;司法鉴定;关联性

中图分类号: DF794DF8  文献标志码: B  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.011

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0072-04

 

 

 

 

 

 

司法鉴定执业风险识别与防控

 

孙大明,诸宇杰

(华东政法大学,上海 200042

 

摘 要: 司法鉴定不仅承载着诉讼中的各类风险,还沿袭着司法鉴定科学技术活动自身的风险。近年来司法鉴定行业陆续出现反复投诉、诉讼、信访、闹访,甚至出现所谓“鉴闹”、诬告、打骂鉴定机构鉴定人的现象就是此类风险的表征。通过研究司法鉴定执业活动中可能面临的风险种类、成因、表现形式、预警信息,有助于提高司法鉴定从业人员的风险意识。建议通过提高司法鉴定人的自身修养和业务水平、建立鉴定机构对执业风险的评估管理、增设专项资金预存机制以及完善司法鉴定人执业保护制度以帮助鉴定人在日常执业中有效预防和降低风险。通过加强司法鉴定行业自律和维权能力建设等措施,提高司法鉴定人和司法鉴定机构的风险防御能力,提高执业技能,更好地服务诉讼。

关键字:司法鉴定;执业风险;专家责任

中图分类号: DF8  文献标志码: B  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.012

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0076-05

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

护理人数的法医学鉴定问题探讨

 

顾晓峰,仇永贵,费成平

(南通大学附属医院司法鉴定所,江苏 南通 226001

 

摘 要: 在人身损害赔偿案件的法医学鉴定中经常涉及护理方面的鉴定,目前护理期限、护理依赖的鉴定均已有专门技术标准,但护理人数如何评定尚未见明确的规定,在鉴定实践中有时易引发混乱现象,可能侵害相关当事人的合法权益,甚至严重影响司法鉴定的公正性与司法权威。从司法鉴定护理的内涵入手,就基础护理与生活护理、不同住院病房以及不同病情的护理需要、非住院期间与康复期间的护理需要,以及护理依赖下的护理需要等情形进行分析,探讨护理人数的鉴定中应以支持一人护理为基本原则,同时在特殊情形下可考虑设置两人护理,在选择护工或者家属护理方面也应加以适当关注。

关键词: 基础护理;生活护理;护理人数;法医学鉴定

中图分类号: DF795.4  文献标志码: B  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.013

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0081-04

 

 

 

 

 

老年人交通伤法医临床学鉴定

 

张德雨1,张纯兵2,宋孝飞1,雷 1,张双双1,吴 3

1.上海法衡司法鉴定所,上海 201202 2.华东政法大学,上海 20050 3.上海华医司法鉴定所,上海 200050

 

摘 要: 老年人易发生各类损伤,伤后致死率与致残率均高于其他年龄组人群。随着我国老年化社会程度加剧及机动车拥有量的增加,老年人发生交通伤也呈日渐增多趋势。交通伤残鉴定意见是处理交通事故的法定证据之一,老年人交通残疾鉴定则是处理老年交通事故的重要环节。通过与非老年人群交通伤的比较研究,分析老年人残疾鉴定中鉴定时机选择、伤病关系、损伤参与度以及一些年龄相关因素的特点以及鉴定注意事项,为老年人交通伤的鉴定提供参考。

关键字: 法医临床学;老年人;交通伤;残疾鉴定

中图分类号: DF795.4  文献标志码: B  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.014

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0085-03

 

 

 

 

 

 

高血压病暂予监外执行的评定

 

凌,林越坚

(温州市人民检察院,浙江 温州 325000

 

摘 要: 我国暂予监外执行工作的新规定实施以来,是否达到暂予监外执行疾病严重程度的判定仍存在一些困难和有待解决的问题。通过对温州地区2016年的117起暂予监外执行案件的审查,发现高血压病的诊断及其严重程度的评定存在血压测量不规范、部分标准规定适用困难和执法监督缺失等问题。建议从制度设计、技术规范、监督执行等方面完善高血压病暂予监外执行的鉴定和审查,规范评定程序,以公平、公正和科学的方法对此类案件实行监外执行。

关键词: 暂予监外执行;高血压病;司法鉴定

中图分类号: DF795.4  文献标志码: B  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.015

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0088-04

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

建设工程质量司法鉴定管理探讨

 

安,武文宽

(陕西蓝图司法鉴定中心,陕西 西安 710004

 

摘 要: 我国的建设行政管理部门,主要对工程的建设和既有建筑物的安全使用性进行管理和规范,而未涉及或未完全涉及建筑工程纠纷的司法鉴定,因此,在理论、行业标准和规范上尚存空白。对建设工程质量司法鉴定的方法和理论的建立及完善进行探讨,建议参照一些司法鉴定机构实践中的有益经验,制定相应的行业标准和规范,推进建设工程司法鉴定的规范管理。

关键词: 建设工程;工程质量;司法鉴定

中图分类号: TU762  文献标志码: B  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.016

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0092-04

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017年度全国司法鉴定情况统计分析

 

党凌云,张效礼

(司法部 司法鉴定管理局,北京100020

 

摘 要: 2017年度,司法鉴定管理工作紧紧围绕“健全统一司法鉴定管理体制”改革任务,严格准入、严格监管,全面加强司法鉴定管理和监督,推动了司法鉴定行业进一步规范健康发展。2017年度统计数据显示,司法鉴定行业整体态势持续向好,“其他类”鉴定机构和鉴定人大幅减少,鉴定机构“小、散”状况有所改观等成效显现。

关键词: 司法鉴定;司法鉴定机构;司法鉴定人;司法鉴定统计分析;司法鉴定执业监督

中图分类号: DF8  文献标志码: B  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.017

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0096-05

 

 

 

 

 

 

精神分裂症患者杀人案重新鉴定1

 

涛,张盛宇

(司法鉴定科学研究院 上海市法医学重点实验室 上海市司法鉴定专业技术服务平台,上海 200063

 

关键词: 重新鉴定;精神分裂症;刑事责任能力评定

中图分类号: DF795.4  文献标志码: B  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.018

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0101-05

 

 

 

 

 

利用行人衣物上的轮胎印痕

认定交通事故肇事逃逸车辆1

 

王淳浩

(中国政法大学 证据科学教育部重点实验室,北京 100088;北京市公安局 交通管理局,北京 100037

 

关键词: 行人衣物;轮胎印痕;肇事逃逸;车辆认定

中图分类号: DF794.1  文献标志码: B  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.019

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0106-03

 

 

 

 

 

 

吸烟致CO中毒促发心源性猝死1

 

翼,刘

(嵊州市公安局,浙江 嵊州 312400

 

关键词: 法医病理学;吸烟;冠心病;一氧化碳;中毒

中图分类号: DF795.4  文献标志码: B  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-2072.2018.03.020

文章编号: 1671-2072-201803-0109-02


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